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Moestuin

De grond voeden en voorbereiden op het voorjaar

Dit onderwerp lijkt wellicht op het eerste gezicht een saai onderwerp, maar het is ooo zo belangrijk in een tuin. Het maakt niet uit wat voor tuin, het is in elke tuin belangrijk. Oke, als je alleen bestrating hebt dan niet, maar ik hoop niet dat je zo’n tuin hebt. 

Simpel
Wil je het simpel houden en niet teveel moeite doen dan raad ik je aan om deze herfst alle afgevallen bladeren die je in de tuin kunt vinden te verzamelen. Dit keer gooi je ze niet in de groencontainer, maar op de kale grond of tussen de planten in je tuintje. De bladeren (mits een goed pak) bedekt de bodem, dus onkruid krijgt minder kans (handig!) en het is een walhalla voor insecten en egeltjes. Wormpjes eten de bladeren op en poepen hele welkome hummus weer uit wat weer zorgt voor voeding en luchtigheid in de grond. 
Met kindjes is dit leuk om te doen. Ik deed het vorig jaar alleen 😉 Ik nam een grote zak mee naar een stadspark en een straat om de hoek met veel bomen, en dus veel afgevallen bladeren, en nam zakken vol mee naar huis.

Compost
Een andere manier is het bedekken van je grond met compost. Dat kan kant en klare compost van een tuincentrum zijn, maar kan ook verse champignonmest of koeienmest zijn. Helaas heb ik geen boertje in de buurt met koeien, dus kant en klare compost it is. Bedenk de bodem goed en je hoeft tot het voorjaar geen onkruid te verwijderen. Ik heb op sommige plekken een combinatie van bladeren en compost gedaan. Eerst bladeren en daarbovenop compost.

Groenbemester
Veel moestuinierders gebruiken ook een groenbemester. In de moestuin heb je in de winter grotere oppervlakken die leeg komen te staan. Door er een andere tijdelijke plant te zetten bereiken ze ook meerdere doelen. De grond staat vol en bij grote regenval spoelen de waardevolle stoffen niet uit de grond, groenbemesters wortelen vaak diep en dat zorgt voor luchtige grond. De worteltjes zorgen voor allerlei gangetjes onder grond en dan maakt dat voeding en water in het voorjaar en zomer beter zijn weg vindt. Sommige groenbemesters geven ook stikstof af aan de bodem en uiteraard zorgt een plant in de aarde voor meer bodemleven dan geen planten. In het voorjaar worden deze planten gebruikt als mulch ( zie voor uitleg het volgende kopje). Niet elke plant is geschikt. Mocht je groenbemesters willen dan moet je goed zoeken welke planten als groenbemester verkocht worden. 
Een nadeel van groenbemesters vind ik dat ze vroeg geplant moeten worden en dan heb ik nog groenten in de tuin staan. 

Japanse Haver als groenbemester.
Afbeelding van Bolster.nl

Mulchen
Mulchen is een veelgebruikte term in de moestuin en tuinwereld en de drie opties die ik hierboven beschreef zijn eigenlijk mulchen. Je (her)gebruikt tuinresten om de bodem mee te bedekken en die tuinresten geven op die manier hun voedingstoffen terug aan de bodem. Dat is dus zo met bladeren, met compost en wanneer je de groenbemester in het voorjaar laat liggen. In de zomer leg ik mijn gemaaide gras bijvoorbeeld ook op de bodem. Ik kan er alle borders mee vullen. Let wel op dat als je veel onkruid in je gras hebt, je deze eigenlijk ook een kans geeft in je borders op deze manier. Ik doe het dus niet altijd. 

Waarom dan toch een apart kopje over mulchen als dat hetzelfde is als de andere geboden opties? Nou, velen van ons willen in de herfst en in de winter een nette, opgeruimde tuin. Ik wil jullie vragen om die drang dit keer niet op te volgen. Dode planten, bladeren en takken zijn heel goed voor het bodemleven, dus laat ze staan en knip ze in het voorjaar pas kort of knip ze af maar verspreid ze over de bodem en gooi ze niet in de container. 
Haal wel de bladeren van je gazon, want die kan daar niet goed tegen. Leg die bladeren dan dus elders in de tuin. 

Extra voedingsstoffen 
Wanneer je een arme grond hebt, dan is het toevoegen van extra voedingsstoffen aan te raden. Doe dat niet nu, want het spoelt deze winter weg. Start vroeg in het voorjaar om de grond ready te hebben tegen de tijd dat je er je plantjes en bloemen in gaat zetten. Er zijn tuincentra waar je een grond sample kunt laten “meten”. Zo weet je of je een zandgrond, kleigrond etc hebt en hoor je welke voedingsstoffen je moet toevoegen. Denk aan kalk of stikstof. Ik heb kleigrond en daarbovenop hebben we een laag tuinaarde laten aanbrengen tijdens de bouw van het huis. Ik geniet dus van de voordelen van klei, maar ik heb gelukkig geen zeiknatte grond, want water kan zakken en blijft niet op de grond liggen. Ik mulch veel en dat zorgt ervoor dat ik weinig extra voedingsstoffen hoef toe te voegen. Ik heb als extra wel altijd gedroogde koeienmest en lavameel in huis en daar red ik het mee. Lavameel is echt een aanrader. Het verrijkt je bodemleven en versterkt je planten tegen plagen en ziektes. 
Rond maart/april ga ik mijn grond weer voeden, zodat het in mei weer klaar is voor de zomer. Voor nu is het dek met bladeren, takken, compost en gras voldoende.

Veel plezier met deze tuinklusjes! Juist op die heldere dagen met een zonnetje, zoals vandaag, is het heerlijk om buiten bezig te zijn! Hup Vitamine D’tjes!

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